The Journal of Higher Education

Editor-in-Chief - Scott L. Thomas, Claremont Graduate University 
Consulting Editor - Laura Perna, University of Pennsylvania 
Associate Editor - Thomas F. Nelson Laird, Indiana University 
Associate Editor - Penny A. Pasque, University of Oklahoma 
Book Review Editor - Jenny Lee, University of Arizona 
Editorial Assistant - Christina Ryan Rodriguez, Claremont Graduate University

Frequency: Bimonthly, (January, March, May, July, September, November)
ISSN: 0022-1546

Founded in 1930, The Journal of Higher Education publishes original research reporting on the academic study of higher education as a broad enterprise. We publish the highest quality empirical, theoretically grounded work addressing the main functions of higher education and the dynamic role of the university in society. We seek to publish scholarship from a wide variety of theoretical perspectives and disciplinary orientations. Articles appearing in the Journal employ an array of methodological approaches, and we welcome work from scholars across a range of career stages. Comparative and international scholarship should make clear connections to the U.S. context. Manuscripts not appropriate for submission to the Journal include purely theoretical papers, methodological treatises, unsolicited essays and reviews, and non-academic, institutional, and program evaluations or reports.

The Journal of Higher Education

Edited by Scott L. Thomas, Claremont Graduate University




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Abstracts of Articles Accepted for Publication but Not Yet Published

Honor in the Academic Profession: How Professors Want to be Remembered by Colleagues


Achievement in the professions is situated relationally. Work comes to constitute contribution only by the judgments of colleagues. This is paradigmatically the case in science and scholarship, where colleagues not only sanction others but also create their legacy. Normatively, it would stand to reason that colleagues would be held in high regard; the work of academia, and the careers of academics, depend on them. The present work, however, examines how professors value colleagues in actuality. Taking the field of physics, the article examines one aspect of the social significance of colleagues by asking how physicists might desire being remembered by them. Data come from interviews with 60 physicists at distinct career stages and employed at distinct university types. The results reveal a highly delimited number of ways physicists wish to be remembered. In addition, their responses vary by departmental tier, age, and productivity. The discussion exposes two sets of purportedly unequal and contradictory social codes used by academics to project a legacy: professional attributes that are code for "charisma" and personal attributes that are code for "morality. " Anticipation of the self in memoriam is argued to constitute a principal means by which people intersubjectively construct status.

Faculty Composition in Four-Year Institutions: The Role of Pressures, Values, and Organizational Processes in Academic Decision-Making


This study broadens our understanding of conditions that shape faculty composition in higher education. We surveyed academic deans to evaluate their views on the professoriate, values, pressures, and practices pertaining to the use of non-tenure-track faculty (NTTF). We utilize OLS regression to test a model for decision-making related to faculty composition and the use of NTTF, which includes external pressures, values, and strategic organizational processes. Our findings reveal that higher education institutions are employing more NTTF than deans feel is best for meeting institutional needs. Pressures from the external environment are the most associated with this phenomenon, with ramifications for academic decision-making.

Complicating Conditions: Obstacles and Interruptions to Low-Income Students' College "Choices"


Although a major focus of current research and policymaking efforts involves understanding and minimizing the barriers to postsecondary access, conventional reform strategies do not appear to be effecting substantial change in the college-going opportunities for students from low-income and underrepresented racial/ethnic groups. This article presents the results of a qualitative, longitudinal study of the high school-to-college transition for a sample of 16 low-income, Black and Latino students at two inner-city high schools in the Northeastern United States. Drawing on interviews with students over a three-year period—from their junior year of high school through one year after high school graduation—this analysis highlights the interruptions to students' postsecondary plans. In this sample, students' actual postsecondary paths, which included delayed college enrollment and two-year college matriculation, diverged substantially from the initial plans participants developed during high school. Ultimately, the findings illustrate how these students' life circumstances engender decisions that preclude the kinds of choices assumed in the college choice model.

Organizational Segmentation and the Prestige Economy: Deprofessionalization in High- and Low-Resource Departments/p>


Research often considers vertical stratification between US higher education institutions. Yet differences also exist within higher education institutions, which we term "organizational segmentation. " We understand organizational segmentation as a consequence of the external "prestige economy, " which favors research revenues from high-resource science and engineering fields relative to instructional revenues collected by low-resource humanities departments. We use qualitative data from 83 interviews with faculty in high- and low-resource departments to examine how organizational segmentation, academic work, and professionalization are shaped by external and internal resource pressures. We find that deprofessionalization has occurred in different ways for faculty in high- and low-resource academic units. Faculty in high-resource units, like Brint's (1994) "expert" professionals, depend on external research resources and shape their careers accordingly, whereas faculty in low-resource units rely upon teaching revenues distributed by campus administrators.

Mapping Hispanic-Serving Institutions: A Typology of Institutional Diversity


Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs), institutions that enroll at least 25% Hispanic students, are institutionally diverse, including a much wider array of institutional types than other Minority-Serving Institutions (MSIs). Furthermore, they have distinctive institutional characteristics from those typically emphasized in institutional typologies such as Carnegie classification system. To understand better the heterogeneity among HSIs based on their unique institutional qualities, we constructed a conceptual model based on existing theoretical frameworks and empirical research to describe and differentiate among HSIs. Using cluster analysis to examine a population of U.S. mainland and Puerto Rican 2-year and 4-year HSIs in the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), we identified six types of HSIs. This typology helps to place HSIs within the broader landscape of U.S. higher education institutions, provides a foundation for understanding institutional diversity among HSIs, and offers insights about classifying other MSIs and broad access institutions. In an era of increasing accountability, it also provides a tool to identify peer institutions for HSIs, to inform decisions about the extent to which practices at certain HSIs might be applicable to other institutions, and to compare the performance across institutions in more contextually appropriate ways.

Instructional Quality and Student Learning in Higher Education: Evidence from Developmental Algebra Courses


Little is known about the importance of instructional quality in American higher education because few recent studies have had access to direct measures of student learning that are comparable across sections of the same course. Using data from two developmental algebra courses at a large community college, I find that student learning varies systematically across instructors and is correlated with observed instructor characteristics including education, full-time status, and experience. Instructors appear to have effects on student learning beyond their impact on course completion rates. A variety of robustness checks suggest that these results do not appear to be driven by non-random matching of students and instructors based on unobserved characteristics or censoring of the dependent variable due to students who drop the course before the final exam.

The Effect of Florida's Bright Futures Program on College Choice: A Regression Discontinuity Approach


This study evaluates the effect of Florida's Bright Future Program on student college choices. We use regression discontinuity design to estimate the effect of two award levels, which have different SAT/ACT thresholds, on the probability of students choosing in-state public colleges and four-year public colleges. The most consistent and robust finding is the positive, significant increases in the probability of attending Florida's public colleges and in the probability of choosing four-year public colleges for those students who barely meet the program eligibility criteria when compared with those who barely miss those criteria. That is, the evidence presented in this analysis points to the fact that the Bright Future programs significantly altered students' college choices, both in terms of attending in-state public colleges and four-year public colleges. Although this finding holds at different award levels and for students who take SAT and/or ACT tests, the magnitude of the program effect varies along these factors.

Cultivating Innovative Entrepreneurs for the 21st Century: A Study of U.S. and German Students


The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the cultivation of innovative entrepreneurial intentions among students in three distinct educational settings: a U.S. undergraduate four-year environment, a U.S. M.B.A two-year environment, and a German five-year business and technology environment. Results suggested that innovative entrepreneurial intentions varied based on educational setting. Implications for theory, research and practice are discussed.

University Land-Grant Extension and Resistance to Inclusive Epistemologies


Public land grant universities have historically engaged with the public through knowledge extension in the agricultural sciences, which later grew into other forms of outreach. Given the important mission of land-grant institutions to positively impact agricultural sciences, this inquiry focuses on the role of agricultural extension and the exchange of Indigenous knowledge through university programs. In a case study of a Native serving institution with land-grant status, we explored the roles of Western and Indigenous science through interviews with university faculty and food producers. The responses demonstrate that perceptions of Native science in the Western knowledge environment are varied and can create a barrier between the University and the community. The barrier, in turn, can produce a gap that prevents the university from fully offering public benefits that are inclusive of Native peoples, perspectives, and science.

Connecting in Class? College Class Size and Inequality in Academic Social Capital


College students who interact with professors and peers about academic matters have better college outcomes. Although institutional factors influence engagement, prior scholarship has not systematically examined whether class sizes affect students’ academic interactions, nor whether race or first-generation status moderate such effects. We conceptualize academic interactions as forms of social capital that are sensitive to institutional characteristics. We analyzed survey data from a random sample of 346 students enrolled at a public research university linked with institutional data on student class size. We employed logistic regression on six dependent variables capturing academic interactions with professors and peers and controlled for pre-college characteristics. Compared to students enrolled in smaller classes, students enrolled in larger classes had significantly fewer interactions with professors about course material and with peers about course-related ideas. Social group also moderated some effects of class size. Class size negatively influenced first-generation (but not continuing generation) students’ likelihood of talking to professors or TAs about ideas outside of class. For discussions about future careers, larger classes had profound negative effects on Black students (for interactions with professors) and Latino students (for interactions with peers), but no effect on other groups. We discuss implications for theory and practice.

Settling In: The Role of Individual and Departmental Tactics in the Development of New Faculty Networks


Network formation is a key element of newcomer socialization; however, little is understood about how newcomer networks are formed in higher education. Drawing on a series of interviews with 34 new pre-tenure faculty members, we propose that just as individual and organizational socialization tactics interactively influence newcomer adjustment (Gruman, Saks, & Zweig, 2006), so too will they affect new faculty experiences with network formation. Our findings support this proposal; that is, individual employee characteristics, the practices of specific departments within the larger university, and the interaction between the two, create different degrees of network integration for faculty. Further, we find that in the context of university departments, organizational tactics may have a more significant effect on network development (and potentially other socialization outcomes) than those that stem from the individual. Building upon these findings, we also identify factors that facilitate new faculty network development and use these factors to suggest practical guidance for universities striving to enhance new faculty integration.

From Commercial Schools to Corporate Universities: Explaining the Shift in Proprietary Business Education in the U.S, 1970-1990


This study uses archival sources to examine the factors that encouraged for-profit business education to shift during the 1970s from small, certificate programs for bookkeepers and secretaries to large, multi-site universities for mid-level managers. Using data from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, as well as trend data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, I show that demand for the MBA began increasing dramatically during the 1970s. This increase alone, however, does not explain why new, low-status for-profit institutions managed to survive in the mature and highly competitive field of business education. I also show that demand for this degree increased among (a) women of child rearing age and (b) mid-career working adults—two populations traditionally underserved by the non-profit university. For-profit schools were able to grow quite large by directing their marketing at these populations and offering an MBA that promised to be accessible, convenient, and practically oriented. While others have pointed to changes in political support for for-profit universities—especially more access to aid for students—to explain their growth, here I show that students had strong motivators for using federal funding at for-profits in the first place.

(In)validation in the Minority: The Experiences of Latino Students Enrolled in an HBCU


This qualitative, phenomenological study examined the academic and interpersonal validation experiences of four female and four male Latino students who were enrolled in their second- to fifth-year at an HBCU in Texas. Using interviews, campus observations, a questionnaire, and analytic memos, this study sought to understand the role of in- and out-of-class experiences that encouraged Latino students to be active members of the university’s learning community and to overcome obstacles in their adjustment to college. The findings revealed family members, professors, administrators, peers, and off-campus employers were instrumental in offering academic and interpersonal validation. The participants in this study encountered challenges to academic validation if multiple responsibilities limited their ability to interact with their professors. Obstacles to interpersonal validation emerged when family members were unfamiliar with the HBCU campus, when Latino student organizations were unsupported, and when the presence of Latino students and culture was not represented on-campus and online. Implications and recommendations for practice and areas for future research are presented.

The Cultural Cover-Up of College Athletics: How Organizational Culture Perpetuates an Unrealistic and Idealized Balancing Act


Using a combined grounded theory and case study methodology, Jayakumar and Comeaux examined the role of organizational culture in shaping the lives of college athletes, particularly related to negotiating dual roles as both student and athlete. Data collection involved 20 interviews with athletes and stakeholders in the affairs of intercollegiate athletics at a Division I public university, as well as field observations and document analysis. The story that emerged from this breadth of data corroborates with and is largely told through the powerful counternarrative of one key informant who is a former Division I college athlete. Findings reveal a cultural-cover up imposed by an idealized image of achieving excellence in academics and athletics, that masks inadequate organizational support toward academic success. While academics are espoused as a priority at the university and within an athletic department that features an academic support system (e.g., tutors, computer center), and although the importance of balancing a dual student/athlete role is constantly reinforced verbally, underlying messages and structures push college athletes toward a greater focus on athletics at the expense of their academic futures. Implications for organizational change are discussed.

Building the Innovative and Entrepreneurial University: An Institutional Case Study of Administrative Academic Capitalism


Although researchers have explored dimensions of academic capitalism among students and faculty members, knowledge of the roles of administrators at all levels are under-developed in the literature. This institutional case study of a public research-extensive university examines the roles of executive and managerial administrators in bringing a strategic priority of innovation and entrepreneurship to fruition. Using an analytical framework based upon administrative academic capitalism and extended managerial capacity, the study draws upon 31 interviews with administrators, faculty, and students at the institutional case to identify five roles fulfilled by executive and managerial administrators in the facilitation of academic capitalism: building infrastructure, creating new programs, cultivating donors and raising funds, setting a vision around entrepreneurship, and changing policies. The findings show that an institutional orientation to knowledge privatization and profit taking was largely an administrator-driven project. Efforts to promote innovation and entrepreneurship engendered some conflict with faculty members, demonstrating the possible consequences of extended managerial control over processes of production in the academy.

Dissecting a Gendered Organization: Implications for Career Trajectories for Mid-Career Faculty Women in STEM


This paper traces the workplace practices within which mid-career women faculty in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) carry out their careers. Findings from this case study of 25 faculty at one research university reveal three institutional processes that constrain their careers: (a) access to and integration into career networks; (b) distribution of labor in the department and institution; and (c) promotion and leadership. Using Acker's (1990, 2012) theory of gendered organizations and subtexts, findings reveal systemic inequities that can compromise professional advancement for mid-career women faculty in STEM. Implications for these findings; Acker's theory; and recommendations for policy, practice, and future research are included.

Tuition Rich, Mission Poor: Nonresident Enrollment Growth and the Socioeconomic and Racial Composition of Public Research Universities


Many public research universities fail to enroll a critical mass of low-income and underrepresented minority (URM) students. Though founded with a commitment to access, public research universities face pressure to increase tuition revenue and recruit high-achieving students. These pressures create an incentive to recruit nonresident students, who tend to pay more and score higher on admissions exams, but also tend to be richer and are less likely be Black or Latino. This paper examines whether the growing share of nonresident students was associated with a declining share of low-income and URM students at public research universities. Institution-level panel models revealed that growth in the proportion of nonresident students was associated with a decline in the proportion of low-income students. This negative relationship was stronger at prestigious universities and at universities in high-poverty states. Growth in the proportion of nonresident students was also associated with a decline in the proportion of URM students. This negative relationship was stronger at prestigious universities, universities in states with large minority populations, and universities in states with affirmative action bans. These findings yield insights about the changing character of public research universities and have implications for the campus climate experienced by low-income and URM students.

The Association Between Worldview Climate Dimensions and College Students' Perceptions of Transformational Learning


Based on 13,776 student respondents to the Campus Religious and Spiritual Climate Survey (CRSCS) across three academic years at 52 colleges and universities, this study examines how aspects of the campus climate for religious and spiritual diversity relate to student perceptions of transformational learning in college. Perceived transformational learning is associated with college experiences that provoke new ways of thinking and present challenges to pre-existing assumptions of reality, ceteris paribus. Some effects are conditional on students' self-identified religion/worldview. Implications are discussed.

The Influence of Climate on the Academic and Athletic Success of Student-Athletes: Results from a Multi-Institutional National Study


Students' perceptions of the campus climate can affect their success and outcomes. Student-athletes' experiences with campus life are unique. The Student-Athletes Climate Study (SACS) is a national study of over 8,000 student athletes from all NCAA sports and divisions. The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of individual and institutional characteristics, as mediated by climate, on student-athletes' (a) academic success, (b) athletic success, and (c) athletic identity. Results indicate that differences in outcomes exist based on institutional and individual characteristics. It is also clear that climate matters. Six of the seven climate scales influenced the outcomes, and differences in outcomes based on sexual identity, Division, and featured sport participation were more salient when climate was taken into account. Positive aspects of climate lead to increases in outcomes in almost every relationship. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed, as well as specific suggestions of initiatives to improve the climate to promote the success of all student-athletes.

Alternative Student-Based Revenue Streams for Higher Education Institutions: A Difference-in-Difference Analysis Using Guaranteed Tuition Policies


This study considers the impact of state-level guaranteed tuition programs on alternative student-based revenue streams. It uses a quasi-experimental, difference-in-difference methodology with a panel dataset of public four-year institutions from 2000–2012. Illinois' 2004 'Truth-in-Tuition' law is used as the policy of interest and the treatment condition. Following the introduction of Illinois' guaranteed tuition law, required fees and out-of-state tuition increased significantly at institutions subject to the law, but not the number or percent of out-of-state students. These results are robust to specifications with alternative comparison groups and the inclusion of state-specific linear time trends.

Cooling Out Undergraduates with Health Impairments: The Freshman Experience


Students with health impairments represent a growing sector of the college population, but health based disparities in bachelor's degree completion persist. The classes students pass and the grades they receive during the first year of college provide signals of degree progress and academic fit that shape educational expectations, potentially subjecting students to a cooling out process (Clark 1960). Using the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS 04/09), we compare signals of degree progress and academic fit and changes in educational expectations between students with and without health impairments during the first year of college. We find that net of academic preparation, type of institution, enrollment intensity and first year experiences, students with mental impairments are more likely to lower their educational expectations after the first year of college, due partially to negative signals of academic fit. We find limited evidence that gaps in learning are related to the use of academic accommodations for students with health impairments. Our results suggest that students with mental impairments are disadvantaged in reaching first year benchmarks of degree progress and academic fit and are disproportionately cooled out.

Democratization and Diversion: The Effect of Missouri's A+ Schools Program on Postsecondary Enrollment


Recent federal and state education policy has targeted community colleges as an affordable venue to increase postsecondary attainment. We examined a state program aimed at increasing community college enrollment, the Missouri A+ Schools Program which provided eligible graduates from participating high schools the opportunity to earn a scholarship at a Missouri public two-year college. The Missouri A+ Schools Program aims to increase the democratization of education by providing greater access to attend postsecondary institutions but may simultaneously create a diversion away from four-year colleges. The staggered adoption of the Missouri A+ Schools Program across high schools allowed a quasi-experimental estimation of the effect of the program on postsecondary enrollment. The Missouri A+ Schools Program increased the overall college-going rate by 1.5 percentage points for graduates from A+ designated high schools. Furthermore, the A+ Schools Program increased two-year college-going rates by 5.3 percentage points, and decreased four-year college-going rates by 3.8 percentage points. Overall, the A+ Schools Program provided a democratizing effect by increasing overall postsecondary enrollment, while simultaneously creating a diversionary effect through increased two-year enrollment and a decline in four-year enrollment.

The Unwritten Rules Of Engagement: Social Class Differences in Undergraduates' Academic Strategies


Research has shown social class differences in undergraduate engagement, yet we know little about the reasons for these differences. Drawing on interviews and participant observation with first-year undergraduates at an urban, public comprehensive university, this ethnographic study investigates the academic engagement strategies of students from different social class backgrounds during their first two years of college. I find that first-generation and middle class students expend strenuous efforts to succeed, with first-generation students employing independent strategies and middle class students employing interactive, as well as independent, strategies. But because middle class students have a broader repertoire of strategies, which include those that are visible and valued by university faculty and staff, they are advantaged in the college context, or field, relative to their first-generation peers. This research shows how culture in the form of social class shapes undergraduates' academic strategies and contributes to their unequal outcomes. It also points to the role of institutions in defining the implicit rules of engagement, such that middle class strategies of interaction are recognized and rewarded while first-generation strategies of independence are largely ignored.

Surviving and Thriving: The Adaptive Responses of U.S. Four-Year Colleges and Universities During the Great Recession


Press reports and industry statistics both give incomplete pictures of the outcomes of the Great Recession for U.S. four-year colleges and universities. To address these gaps, we conducted a statistical analysis of all articles that appeared in Lexis-Nexis on a sample of more than 300 U.S. colleges and universities during the Recession years. We identify four clusters of institutional responses, which we label "consumer service," "market search," "growing and greening" and "the complete arsenal." Overviews of actions taken in each of these clusters provide qualitative texture and evidence of senior managers' intentions. Our findings are broadly consistent with organizational theories emphasizing divergent institutional logics, but we question the extent to which the fourth of our clusters can be characterized as a coherent adaptive "logic," and we add an emphasis on inter-organizational stratification as an influence on adaptive responses.

Psychological Heuristics and Faculty of Color: Racial Battle Fatigue and Tenure/Promotion


Faculty who have been historically excluded from participating in academia present a unique quandary for those who have traditionally held power at the university. This article explores the promotion and tenure (P&T) process of Black faculty using a psychological construct to examine how racial micro-aggressions manifest and articulate themselves through individual and organizational phenomena such as Racial Battle Fatigue (RBF). We applied a psychological approach to narrative inquiry to examine how two faculty of color experienced the P&T process. Participant narratives highlighted how much of the P&T process, and even engagement in academia in general, is articulated by likability or congeniality—two constructs absent from P&T policies.

Community College Scientists and Salary Gap: Navigating Socioeconomic and Academic Stratification in the U.S. Higher Education System


More than four decades of research on community colleges indicates that students who begin in these institutions realize lower levels of educational attainment than initial 4-year entrants. In terms of labor market outcomes, studies overwhelmingly focus on comparing 2-year entrants with high school graduates who did not attend college. In contrast, this study concentrates on 2-year entrants who became scientists in STEM fields and compares their individual and professional characteristics and monetary compensation over a 10-year period with those of scientists who entered college in the 4-year sector. The data analyzed come from two National Science Foundation's longitudinal and nationally representative samples of doctorate recipients. The analytic techniques relied on the instrumental variables approach for dynamic panel data and propensity score weighting. Findings consistently revealed that 2-year entrants came from lower-income backgrounds, had lower mean salary, and lower salary growth than their 4-year sector counterparts. Despite these negative salary-based effects, data showed that the 2-year sector has had an active function in the early formation of scientists. As the competition for science and technology development tightens worldwide, initiatives should identify understudied venues to increase the production of STEM graduates. Considering its scope, the 2-year sector could be one of them.

Changing Degrees: Creation and Growth of New Kinds of Professional Doctorates


Since 1990, new types of doctoral degrees—most in professions that had never had doctorates before—surged onto the higher education scene in the U.S. and elsewhere. In the U.S., new "professional practice doctorates" were created in over a dozen fields, and programs for them skyrocketed from near zero in 2000 to about 650 by 2015. In some fields, aspiring professionals who once completed master's now either must or increasingly are expected to complete doctorates to enter practice. This paper examines the creation and expansion of these doctorates and the forces driving them. Using comparative case study analysis of three professional fields, the study found that professional associations or professional school administrators spearheaded the creation of new doctoral credentials. The study concluded that they did so primarily to increase the professions' or practitioners' status, autonomy and income or to raise institutional standing—rather than to respond to labor market needs or more complex professional work environments. Once the new doctoral titles were established, many programs quickly converted from master's to doctoral awards, despite program costs and uncertainties. These new doctorates raise important policy questions about professional access, institutional resources, quality of client care, and the meaning of a doctorate.

Does Collaborative Learning Influence Persistence to the Second Year of College?


The purpose of this paper is to determine whether engaging in collaborative learning influences persistence to the second year of college among 2,987 college freshmen across 19 institutions. Net of potential confounders such as sex, race, precollege academic ability, type of institution attended, college coursework taken, academic motivation, and the clustered nature of the data, those who engage in collaborative learning are significantly more likely than students who do not learn collaboratively to persist to the second year of college. The results of our analyses suggest the influence of collaborative learning on persistence affects students similarly, regardless of individual differences by sex, race, or tested precollege academic ability. Lastly, the influence of collaborative learning on persistence appears to be mediated by peer interactions. That is, learning collaboratively leads to greater levels of positive peer interactions, which in turn is associated with greater odds of persisting to the second year of college.

Remedial Education and Completing College: Exploring Differences by Credential and Institutional Level


This study compared the postsecondary outcomes of students who enrolled in remedial (sometimes called "developmental") courses in college and their peers who did not. The analysis examined the relationship between postsecondary remediation and the odds of achieving three postsecondary outcomes, and explored how these relationships varied between students attending colleges at the two-year and four-year levels. Multilevel multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed on interview and transcript data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (2004/2009) for 3,510 students starting at 230 two-year colleges and 6,820 students at 440 four-year colleges. Four-year college students who took any number of remedial courses were significantly less likely to complete a Bachelor's degree; for students who started at a two-year college, taking three or more such courses had a negative association with Bachelor's completion. However, remedial education did not exhibit a statistically significant relationship to remaining enrolled or earning an Associate's degree in either population.

The Governor and the State Higher Education Executive Officer: How the Relationship Shapes State Financial Support for Higher Education


Researchers have shown renewed interest over the past decade in the relationships among politics, policy, finance, and governance of higher education at the state level. Little attention, however, has been paid to state higher education executive officers (SHEEOs), the individuals responsible for leading the agencies that oversee higher education in the 50 states. Of noteworthy interest is the fact that the states vary in regard to the nature of the institutional relationship between the SHEEO and the governor, who has been shown in the literature to exert a strong influence over state higher education policy and finance. To explore the relationship, we developed measures that capture relevant dimensions of the relationship between the two actors and test the impact of these measures on state spending for higher education using a unique panel of state-level data spanning over two decades. We find that the institutional relationship between the SHEEO and the governor has a significant impact on state support for higher education.

Performance-Based Funding for Community Colleges in Texas: Are Colleges Disadvantaged by Serving the Most Disadvantaged Students?


Texas recently joined a growing number of states that have adopted, or reintroduced, performance-based funding (PBF) for community colleges. Using institutional student unit record data from Fall 2007 to Summer 2013, this study applied the metrics from this new PBF model to examine enrollment outcomes among 5,900 students attending a large, racially/ethnically diverse community college system in the state. Our findings revealed stark differences in PBF apportioned to the college as a function of students' characteristics. On average, students who were Asian, age 19 or younger, pursuing academic/transfer degrees, enrolled full-time, Pell Grant recipients, and assigned to the highest-levels (i.e. closest to college-level) of developmental math procured the most PBF for the college. Conversely, African American, older adults, part-time students, GED holders, and students assigned to the lowest level of developmental math secured much less funding. To assuage undesirable consequences on institutional behavior, we recommend several modifications to Texas' PBF model that could help ensure community colleges are not discouraged from recruiting and serving the most disadvantaged students.

The Contribution of Study Abroad to Human Capital Formation


Studying abroad may allow students to form human capital in ways not possible on the home campus, and enable them to earn higher incomes. On the other hand, study abroad has been criticized as insufficiently rigorous. Little is known about how, or whether, study abroad affects skills and earnings in the long term. Using a data set of 3155 students over a range of 43 years from a single college, we investigate the effects of study abroad, finding it has no net effect on earnings compared to study at the home campus. The advantages and disadvantages of study abroad are approximately balanced; human capital formed by study abroad is not more, nor less, than that formed in residence. Colleges need not emphasize study abroad more than they do study on campus, but also need not worry that study abroad is unproductive. Study abroad and study at home appear equally effective at forming human capital.